In one large-scale application, melamine was combined with formaldehyde and other reagents to produce melamine resins. This resin is typically a durable thermosetting plastic used for high-pressure decorative laminates such as bakelite, melamine cutlery, laminate flooring and dry-wipe boards.
Melamine foam is used as insulation, sound insulation and polymerized cleaning products such as magic eraser.
Melamine is one of the main components of pigment yellow 150, a colorant used in inks and plastics.
Melamine is also used in the manufacture of melamine polysulfonate, which is used as a highly effective water reducing agent in the manufacture of high-strength concrete. Sulfonated melamine formaldehyde (SMF) is a polymer used as a cement admixture to reduce the water content in concrete while improving the fluidity and workability of the mixture during treatment and pouring. It enables concrete to have lower porosity and higher mechanical strength, showing better corrosion resistance and longer service life.
Because of its high nitrogen content (2/3), melamine was envisioned as a fertilizer for crops in the 1950s and 1960s.  However, the production cost of melamine is much higher than that of other common nitrogen fertilizers, such as urea. Melamine mineralizes (degrades to ammonia) slowly, making the product economically and scientifically unusable as a fertilizer.
Melamine and its salts are used as flame retardant additives in paints, plastics and paper.  Melamine fiber Basofil has low thermal conductivity, excellent flame retardancy and self-extinguishing; This makes it suitable for use in flame-retardant protective clothing, either alone or in combination with other fibers.
Melamine derivatives of arsenic-containing drugs are of potential importance in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis.
A 1958 patent describes the use of melamine as nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) in cattle. However, a 1978 study concluded that melamine “may not be an acceptable non-protein nitrogen source for ruminants” because its hydrolysis in cattle is slower and incomplete than other nitrogen sources such as cottonseed meal and urea.
Melamine is sometimes illegally added to food products to increase apparent protein levels. Standard tests, such as the Kjeldahl and Dumas tests, estimate protein levels by measuring nitrogen, so adding nitrogen-rich compounds like melamine can mislead them. Today there are instruments that can distinguish between melamine nitrogen and protein nitrogen.
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